Estampie reale : Work information

Anon ( Music, Images,)
Performed by
Ray Attfield (Nakers), John Grubb (Citole), Michael Sargeant (Bagpipes), John Sothcott (Vielle), St. George's Canzona, John Sothcott (Conductor)

This work

Work name
Estampie reale
Work number

This recording

Simon Lawman
Bob Auger
Recording date
1982-05-08 00:00:00

Track listing

  • I 2:51 min


Most of the instruments played on this recording, although mainly used in ensemble here, are self-sufficient in solo performance, each providing its own drone or ostinato accompaniment.

The bowed vielles and plucked citoles are closely modelled on contemporary paintings and sculptures. They are played according to instructions in 13th and 14th century treatises. Both types are tuned so that strings not being stopped by the left hand, act as drones.

The English bagpipe has a single drone and chanter and the bag is inflated by the mouth. The pipe and tabor is played in the continuing tradition of Morris dancing. The left hand plays the pipe while the tabor, which is suspended from the left arm, is beaten by a stick held in the right hand.

The percussion instruments are also based on representations in medieval art. The nakers are a tuned pair of kettledrums hung from the players waist.

The Composers


A piece of music is attributed to "Anon" if we do not know who wrote it. There are several ways this can happen.

Some music, particularly folk songs, have been handed down for centuries without being written down. Presumably someone composed them, but by the time people like Bartók, Vaughan Williams and Percy Grainger  went around collecting folk songs, many attributed the tunes as "traditional". Thanks to the "Chinese Whispers" effect of passing on a tune by ear, the music had been shaped and changed with the times.

There are also written pieces that are difficult to identify. Before photocopiers existed, most music was copied by hand, making the age of the paper and handwriting not reliable indicators of age or provenance. If the title page gets lost, we can only listen to the music to see if the style is familiar. If the work is by somebody obscure, or if it isn't a good example of their work, it becomes more difficult to identify.

Copyright violation was abundant in the classical period, with many copying pieces and pretending that they had written them, or producing forgeries of the works of famous composers. As with paintings, once a piece has been identified as a fake, it can be virtually impossible to work out the composer.

There is a lot of debate about certain "anonymous" works. There are claims that "Greensleeves" was written by King Henry VIII although, having listened to some of the other things attributed to him, this seems rather unlikely. One must use a good sense of judgment and have a good musical ear to properly attribute these anonymous works to a particular composer.

Related: folk Traditional