Ballade No. 4 : Work information
- Work name
- Ballade No. 4
- Work number
- Op. 52
- F minor
- 1842-01-01 02:00:00
- Forlane CI
- Ivan Pastor
- Jean-Martial Golaz
- Recording date
- 1986-01-01 00:00:00
Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin
Since all that survives of Chopin is the brilliant music that he wrote, it's all too easy to forget that he was also a great performer. He wrote difficult and innovative music so that he could perform it himself.
Chopin’s father was a French schoolteacher, and his mother was Polish. He grew up in Warsaw, Poland, and studied music as a child, and then at the Warsaw Conservatory between 1826 and 1829. He had already published several pieces of music, and during 1829 and 1830 he became well-known as a pianist, giving concerts in Warsaw and Vienna. He composed almost all of his music for the piano (although sometimes with orchestral accompaniment). He tended to write his music actually at the piano, sometimes struggling to put his ideas onto paper. But he was unhappy in Poland and set off on a European tour, stopping in 1831 in Paris, one of the great musical centres of Europe.
Here, Chopin was praised as a musician by such composers as Liszt and Schumann , among others, and rapidly became famous. He played mostly for private audiences, although he did give a few public performances, and he was particularly known for his skill at improvising. He would use many of the musical ideas and styles from Polish folk music, and many of his compositions are directly linked to Polish dances and musical forms, such as the Mazurka. Chopin also established himself as a teacher, and many of his compositions were written to be used by his pupils, such as studies, preludes, waltzes, nocturnes, mazurkas and impromptus. These pieces are not perhaps as difficult as the larger-scale works he produced for concert performance, such as the scherzos, ballades, sonatas and the barcarolle, which were written for himself to perform.
Chopin was very inventive in the way he wrote music. While in form it was often quite simple - basically a tune and an accompaniment - it was often full of variation and interest. He used the sustaining pedal of the piano in a way which composers had not done before, and produced a delicacy both when playing and when composing which was considered highly innovative. This made it very popular, and his music was published in Paris, London and Leipzig. As a measure of Chopin’s popularity and fame, when he died of tuberculosis in 1849, 3,000 people attended his funeral.
All Chopin's mature polonaises, scherzos and ballades, i.e the more extended non-sonata forms, were composed between 1834 and 1843. The ballades may have been inspired by the tradition of the literary ballad, and, as such, place great emphasis on narrative elements in the musical structure. In most cases they conclude with a grand apotheosis, delaying the resolution of tonal tension until the final moments of the piece.
One of Chopin's greatest works, the F minor Ballade op. 52, composed in 1842, is also one of the great masterpieces of the nineteenth century piano repertoire. With its powerful narrative drive and exciting drama, it brings the genre of the Ballade to a triumphant conclusion. The reprise combines all elements of Chopin's style, from the Bach-influenced strict canonic techniques to the wonderful bel canto melodies of Italian opera, and the exuberant coda also harks back to the virtuoso crowd-pleasing works of Chopin's youth.