Messiah : Work information
- George Frideric Handel ( Music, Images,)
- Performed by
- Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra, Nicholas McGegan
- Work name
- Work number
- HWV 56
- 1741-01-01 02:00:00
- harmonia mundi
- Recording date
George Frideric Handel
Handel's reputation lay for many years with his orchestral works and, more especially, with his English oratorios, a genre he both invented and helped establish. In recent years, however, his dramatic achievements as a composer of opera have been rediscovered, and in contributing to every musical genre of his time, he can be regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Baroque period.
Born in Halle on 23 February 1685, the son of a barber-surgeon, Handel was initially discouraged from studying music. However, the Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels recognised his talent and persuaded his father to allow him a musical education.
After his training was completed, Handel left for the great opera centres of Europe in 1703, beginning with Hamburg. Hamburg contained the only regular opera company outside the royal courts and, learning a great deal from the opera composer Reinhard Keiser, he composed the highly successful Almira.
Handel's tour of operatic centres then took him to Italy, where he completed works for Ferdinando de' Medici in Florence and the Marquess Francesco Maria Ruspoli in Rome. A papal decree had banned public performance of opera in Rome, so Handel turned his hand instead to oratorio and cantatas. It's possible that Handel also formed the only romantic attachment of his life in these years, to the singer Vittoria Tarquini.
Returning to Hanover, he was appointed Kappellmeister to the electoral court in 1710, but almost immediately set off for Düsseldorf and then, in the autumn, arrived in London. Composing the first Italian operas specifically for London, Handel scored a major success with Rinaldo in 1711.
He returned to London again at the end of 1712, composing further operas and obtaining commissions for choral music from the monarch. In providing a Te Deum and Jubilate to celebrate the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, he incurred the displeasure of the elector and was dismissed from his Hanoverian post, though he was reconciled with the elector when he became George I of England the following year.
London now became Handel's adopted home for the rest of his life; in February 1727 he even applied for naturalized citizenship. Aside from a growing number of operas, he composed keyboard music, Italian cantatas and in 1717, the famous Water Music.
After composing the first English oratorio, Esther, in 1718 Handel embarked on the foundation of an Italian opera company, the Royal Academy of Music. Having secured singers from abroad, the company's first season opened in 1720. It gave seven seasons of performances, including many works by Handel such as Guilio Cesare, until 1728 when it briefly disbanded. 1727 had seen a particularly nasty moment when two rival sopranos, Cuzzoni and Faustina, had come to blows on stage in front of the Prince of Wales.
Handel was also given the honorary appointment of Composer of Music for His Majesty's Chapel Royal in 1723; for the coronation of George II he provided four anthems, including Zadok the Priest, performed at every coronation of a British monarch since.
The Royal Academy reformed in 1729 but was now competing with a rival opera company, the Opera of the Nobility. Nevertheless, Handel produced some of his greatest operas, including Ariodante and Alcina in 1735. Revered as a public figure, the increasing difficulties of staging opera prompted Handel to turn to oratorio, a genre that could combine his mastery of vocal forms with his genius for orchestral music and concertos.
Saul opened a season of 'Oratorios and Odes' at the King's Theatre in January 1739 and by December 1741, Handel had practically abandoned opera. A steady stream of oratorios, including the ever-popular Messiah, issued from the composer's pen and in 1743, he began a regular oratorio season of Lenten concerts at the Covent Garden Theatre.
Despite his failing health, Handel continued to produce masterpieces. His Music for the Royal Fireworks, for example, dates from 1749 and was written to celebrate the Peace of Aix-la-Chappelle. By 1751 his eyesight was failing and by January 1753 he was completely blind, forcing a number of restrictions on his activities as a composer. Handel eventually died on 14 April 1759 and was buried in Westminster Abbey in a service attended by 3,000 people.
Although his fame as a composer was well established by the late 1730s his reputation continued to grow after his death. Based mainly on the oratorios Messiah, Samson and Judas Maccabaeus, which continued to dominate oratorio seasons, he was considered the epitome of musical excellence combined with sacred devotion. Great Handel commemorations were held regularly and the veneration of his oratorios continued throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
However, Handel's dramatic skills were almost completely forgotten until the mid-twentieth century. Since then, however, the musical community has made amends and by 2000 all of Handel's operas had been given stage revivals. His star, it seems, is once again in the ascendancy.
- Comfort ye, comfort ye my people 11:32 min
- Thus saith the Lord, the Lord of Hosts 1:17 min
- But who may abide the day of His coming? 4:10 min
- And He shall purify the sons of Levi 2:20 min
- Behold, a virgin shall conceive 5:36 min
- For behold, darkness shall cover the earth 5:07 min
- For unto us a Child is born 6:48 min
- And lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them 0:19 min
- And the angel said unto them 2:35 min
- Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion 4:16 min
- Then shall the eyes of the blind be open'd 0:24 min
- He shall feed His flock like a shepherd 5:48 min
- His yoke is easy, His burthen is light 2:18 min
- Thus saith the Lord: alternate version (bass) 1:32 min
- But who may abide the day of His coming: alternate version (bass) 3:01 min
- But who may abide the day of His coming: alternate version (Soprano) 4:23 min
- But who may abide the day of His coming: alternate version [recitative] (bass) 0:22 min
- But lo! the angel of the Lord came upon them: alternate version (soprano) 1:42 min
- Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion: alternate version (soprano) 5:32 min
- He shall feed His flock: alternate version (alto) 5:11 min
- Behold the lamb of God 2:48 min
- He was despised and rejected of men 10:06 min
- Surely, He hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows 15:22 min
- Lift up your heads 4:16 min
- Thou art gone up on high 2:54 min
- The Lord gave the word 1:03 min
- How beautiful are the feet of Him 2:12 min
- Their sound is gone out into all lands 1:20 min
- Why do the nations so furiously rage together 2:57 min
- Let us break their bonds asunder 1:43 min
- He that dwelleth in heaven 2:13 min
- Hallelujah 3:33 min
- Thou art gone up on high: alternate version (bass) 2:56 min
- Thou art gone up on high: alternate version (alto) 2:49 min
- How beautiful are the feet… / Their sound is gone out… : alternate version (soprano) 5:11 min
- How beautiful are the feet… / Break forth into joy: alternate version (alto I; alto II; chorus) 3:34 min
- How beautiful are the feet… : alternate version (alto) 3:06 min
- Their sound is gone out… : alternate version (tenor) 1:07 min
- Why do the nations… : alternate version (bass) 1:25 min
- He that dwelleth… / Thou shalt break them… : alternate version [recitative] (tenor) 0:21 min
- I know that my Redeemer liveth 6:38 min
- Since by man came death 1:41 min
- Behold, I tell you a mystery 0:30 min
- The trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be rais'd 8:18 min
- Then shall be brought to pass 0:15 min
- O death, where is thy sting? 1:44 min
- But thanks be to God 2:06 min
- If God is for us who can be against us 4:22 min
- Worthy is the Lamb that was slain 3:00 min
- Chorus: Amen 4:20 min
- O Death, where is thy sting? alternate version [recitative] (alto) 0:27 min
- He was despised… : alternate version (soprano) 11:08 min
The most famous of all oratorios, Handel's Messiah is one of the most popular works in the classical canon.
Written in a burst of compositional activity between 22 August and September 14 1741, Messiah was probably written for the benefit of several Dublin charities. The first performance in Dublin on 13 April 1742 succeeded in raising £400 and was a big success with the enthusiastic Irish.
Successfully combining the traditions of Italian opera, German Passion and English anthem, Messiah is unusual in Handel's oratorio output in having no plot. It is divided into three parts that celebrate Christ's birth, death, and resurrection, but there is no drama to speak of.
Messiah has been tinkered with endlessly since it was first published after the composer's death in 1767 with Beecham, Sargent and even Mozart re-scoring and re-arranging the music. In Victorian times it became customary to perform Messiah with massed choirs and orchestras featuring up to 3000 musicians. In contrast, Handel's original was probably performed with a choir of just 20!
Highlights are numerous, but it's safe to say that Messiah is a whole lot more than just the Hallelujah chorus! Other popular extracts include the choruses And the Glory of God Shall be Revealed, and For Unto Us a Child is Born.