Elijah : Work information
- (Jacob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn ( Music, Images,)
- Performed by
- Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, Gächinger Kantorei Stuttgart, Helmuth Rilling (Conductor)
- Work name
- Work number
- Op. 70
- 1846-01-01 02:00:00
- Recording date
- 2000-01-01 02:01:00
(Jacob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn
One of the leading German composers of the 1830s and 40s, Felix Mendelssohn's music is often cited as evidence of the growing tension between musical Classicism and Romanticism in the post-Beethoven generation.
Described by Schumann as the 'Mozart of the 19th century', his style, fully formed by the age of 20, combines Mozartean grace with the drama of Beethoven and the complexity of J S Bach. Many of his orchestral, choral and chamber works are firmly established in the repertoire, and he remains a popular figure with concert-goers.
Born the son of a Jewish banker in Hamburg on 3 February 1809 and secretly baptized into the Protestant faith, Mendelssohn's early musical education was supervised by his mother. Along with his talented sister Fanny, he displayed remarkable ability on a number of instruments and as a composer.
At the age of 12 he had already written, and seen performed, a fully produced Singspiel and had composed numerous works in other genres. A solid general education and trips around Europe exposed him to new literary and musical influences to build on his knowledge of Bach, Mozart and Haydn, and by 1825 he had written his first masterpiece, the String Octet. This was followed in 1826 by another remarkable work, the Midsummer Night's Dream overture, pointing to his love for Shakespeare.
Following the study of legal history, geography and aesthetics at the University of Berlin, Mendelssohn embarked in 1829 on a musical tour of Italy, France and England, meeting Goethe along the way. While in Britain he undertook a walking tour of Scotland where the Symphony No. 3 and Hebrides overture were conceived. Indeed, Mendelssohn was a frequent visitor to England throughout the rest of his career.
In 1833, Mendelssohn was offered a position as Düsselfdorf music director. His energies were devoted to reviving the oratorios of Haydn and Handel, having already presented a revival performance of Bach's St Matthew Passion in 1829. This no doubt prompted him to begin his own oratorio, St Paul in 1834.
A move to Leipzig occurred in 1835, where Mendelssohn served as municipal music director and conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. Over the next 12 years, he turned this orchestra into one of Europe's most prestigious ensembles.
International fame was secured in 1836 by his decision to direct the 18th Niederrheinisches Musikfest in Dusseldorf; shortly after he married Cécile Jeanrenaud, daughter of a Huguenot minister. A time of personal and professional happiness, Mendelssohn was constantly in demand to conduct the major music festivals of Europe.
In September 1841 he was appointed Kapellmeister to Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, and charged with the task of trying to revive Berlin's musical life. Mendelssohn's duties were never clear and he continued to return to Leipzig to conduct, eventually resigning the Berlin position in September 1844. Meanwhile his Leipzig efforts had helped found a new Conservatory and won him an honorary citizenship of the city.
The last years were dominated by the composition and performance of his great oratorio, Elijah . However in 1847, returning to Frankfurt from England, Mendelssohn was shattered to hear of Fanny's death. Mendlessohn's own demise was not far off either and, after suffering a number of strokes, he died on 4 November 1847 and was buried next to his beloved sister.
Mourned internationally, his reputation suffered in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to the anti-Semitic views of Wagner and, later, the Nazis who banned his music. However, in recent years, the quality and attractiveness of his music has won him a loyal following among concert-goers.
The sketching of Mendelssohn's second oratorio, Elijah, occupied him throughout the summer of 1842, though work did not begin in earnest until the two years later. During this time, Mendelssohn was spending a great deal of time with the celebrated soprano Jenny Lind, and much of the soprano writing in Elijah was written with her voice in mind.
The biblical setting of Elijah is taken from 1 Kings, chapters 17-19, and tells of religious dissension in Israel and Judea as the idol Baal is worshipped in place of Jehovah. As in Handel's oratorios, the Chorus is given a pivotal role as 'the people', and solo voices take the roles of individual characters.
Elijah was given its first performance at the Birmingham Festival on 26 August 1846, and was a huge success. The work was performed by 125 musicians and a. 271-strong chorus in front of an audience numbering 2000! Mendelssohn returned to Britain several times to conduct the work and, on one of these occasions, Prince Albert wrote a dedication in the score.
Highlights include Elijah's arias Herr Gott Abrahams (Draw near all ye people) and Ja, es sollen wohl Berge (For the mountains shall depart), the chorus Siehe, der Hüter Israels (He watching over Israel), and the final Alsdann wird euer Licht hervorbrechen (And then shall your light break forth).