Symphony No. 3 'Scottish' : Work information
- (Jacob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn ( Music, Images,)
- Performed by
- Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, David Zinman (Conductor)
- Work name
- Symphony No. 3 'Scottish'
- Work number
- Op. 56
- A minor
- 1842-01-01 02:00:00
- Judith Sherman
- Ros Ritchie
- Recording date
- 1980-01-01 02:00:00
(Jacob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn
One of the leading German composers of the 1830s and 40s, Felix Mendelssohn's music is often cited as evidence of the growing tension between musical Classicism and Romanticism in the post-Beethoven generation.
Described by Schumann as the 'Mozart of the 19th century', his style, fully formed by the age of 20, combines Mozartean grace with the drama of Beethoven and the complexity of J S Bach. Many of his orchestral, choral and chamber works are firmly established in the repertoire, and he remains a popular figure with concert-goers.
Born the son of a Jewish banker in Hamburg on 3 February 1809 and secretly baptized into the Protestant faith, Mendelssohn's early musical education was supervised by his mother. Along with his talented sister Fanny, he displayed remarkable ability on a number of instruments and as a composer.
At the age of 12 he had already written, and seen performed, a fully produced Singspiel and had composed numerous works in other genres. A solid general education and trips around Europe exposed him to new literary and musical influences to build on his knowledge of Bach, Mozart and Haydn, and by 1825 he had written his first masterpiece, the String Octet. This was followed in 1826 by another remarkable work, the Midsummer Night's Dream overture, pointing to his love for Shakespeare.
Following the study of legal history, geography and aesthetics at the University of Berlin, Mendelssohn embarked in 1829 on a musical tour of Italy, France and England, meeting Goethe along the way. While in Britain he undertook a walking tour of Scotland where the Symphony No. 3 and Hebrides overture were conceived. Indeed, Mendelssohn was a frequent visitor to England throughout the rest of his career.
In 1833, Mendelssohn was offered a position as Düsselfdorf music director. His energies were devoted to reviving the oratorios of Haydn and Handel, having already presented a revival performance of Bach's St Matthew Passion in 1829. This no doubt prompted him to begin his own oratorio, St Paul in 1834.
A move to Leipzig occurred in 1835, where Mendelssohn served as municipal music director and conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. Over the next 12 years, he turned this orchestra into one of Europe's most prestigious ensembles.
International fame was secured in 1836 by his decision to direct the 18th Niederrheinisches Musikfest in Dusseldorf; shortly after he married Cécile Jeanrenaud, daughter of a Huguenot minister. A time of personal and professional happiness, Mendelssohn was constantly in demand to conduct the major music festivals of Europe.
In September 1841 he was appointed Kapellmeister to Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, and charged with the task of trying to revive Berlin's musical life. Mendelssohn's duties were never clear and he continued to return to Leipzig to conduct, eventually resigning the Berlin position in September 1844. Meanwhile his Leipzig efforts had helped found a new Conservatory and won him an honorary citizenship of the city.
The last years were dominated by the composition and performance of his great oratorio, Elijah . However in 1847, returning to Frankfurt from England, Mendelssohn was shattered to hear of Fanny's death. Mendlessohn's own demise was not far off either and, after suffering a number of strokes, he died on 4 November 1847 and was buried next to his beloved sister.
Mourned internationally, his reputation suffered in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries due to the anti-Semitic views of Wagner and, later, the Nazis who banned his music. However, in recent years, the quality and attractiveness of his music has won him a loyal following among concert-goers.
Possibly Mendelssohn's supreme acheivement in orchestral writing, the Scottish Symphony had a remarkably long gestation period. In 1829 Mendelssohn visited Scotland and dismayed by the 'ruin and decay' of Holyrood, the palace of Mary Queen of Scots, began sketches for a Symphony. His mood soon gave way to optimism and he laid the new work aside.
In 1841 Mendelssohn was once again dismayed; the new King of Prussia's plans to reform the arts had come to nought. Mendelssohn felt he could turn once again to the Scottish Symphony. It was finally finished and performed under the composer's baton on 3 March 1842, dedicated to Queen Victoria.
Though filled with resignation and sorrow in places, the Symphony also has moments of joy: the magical scherzo with its Scottish dance rhythms and the triumphant coda of the finale are amongst Mendelssohn's cheeriest creations. The power of nature is also evoked with the first movement's depiction of the storm and sea, complete with rolling waves. The overall effect is one of great beauty married to purposeful energy.