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Johann Friedrich Reichardt

German Born 25 Nov 1752 Died 27 Jun 1814

Carlo Maria Giulini (May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor, and violist.

Giulini was born in Barletta, Italy and studied the viola and composition at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome. He later studied conducting with Bernardino Molinari.

Giulini worked at Milan Radio from 1946 to 1951, where he revived several obscure operas, including works by Alessandro Scarlatti. Arturo Toscanini heard a production of Haydn's Il mondo della luna; this led Toscanini to recommend Giulini for the musical directorship at La Scala, where he remained from 1953 to 1956.

In 1958, Giulini conducted a highly acclaimed production of Verdi's Don Carlos at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. During the 1960s, he was in great demand as a guest conductor of leading orchestras around the world, and made numerous well-received recordings with the Philharmonia Orchestra of London (as well as others).

After 1968 Giulini abandoned opera, as a result of not wanting to compromise his artistic vision, concentrating instead on orchestral works. He served as Principal Guest Conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra from 1969 to 1978, and he was named Music Director of the Vienna Symphony Orchestra in 1973. From 1978 to 1984, he served as principal conductor and Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, launching his tenure there with performances of Beethoven's 9th Symphony. In 1982 he returned once more to opera, conducting a controversial production of Verdi's Falstaff.

Giulini's most notable opera recordings include the 1959 Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus versions of Mozart's operas Le Nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni for EMI, as well as his 1955 recording of Verdi's La Traviata with Maria Callas. Respected symphonic records include Beethoven's 3rd with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and Bruckner's epic 8th and 9th symphonies, both with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. These discs were recorded for the Deutsche Grammophon label.

Giulini and wife, Marcella (d. 1995), had three children. He died in Brescia, Italy at age 91.

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